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JAAS Authentication and Login Modules

General Concepts

In order to understand how login modules work and how Oak can help providing extension points we need to look at how JAAS authentication works in general and discuss where the actual credential-verification is performed.

Brief recap of the JAAS authentication

The following section is copied and adapted from the javadoc of The authentication process within the LoginModule proceeds in two distinct phases, login and commit phase:

Phase 1: Login

  1. In the first phase, the LoginModule's login method gets invoked by the LoginContext's login method.
  2. The login method for the LoginModule then performs the actual authentication (prompt for and verify a password for example) and saves its authentication status as private state information.
  3. Once finished, the LoginModule's login method either returns true (if it succeeded) or false (if it should be ignored), or throws a LoginException to specify a failure. In the failure case, the LoginModule must not retry the authentication or introduce delays. The responsibility of such tasks belongs to the application. If the application attempts to retry the authentication, the LoginModule's login method will be called again.

Phase 2: Commit

  1. In the second phase, if the LoginContext's overall authentication succeeded (the relevant REQUIRED, REQUISITE, SUFFICIENT and OPTIONAL LoginModules succeeded), then the commit method for the LoginModule gets invoked.
  2. The commit method for a LoginModule checks its privately saved state to see if its own authentication succeeded.
  3. If the overall LoginContext authentication succeeded and the LoginModule's own authentication succeeded, then the commit method associates the relevant Principals (authenticated identities) and Credentials (authentication data such as cryptographic keys) with the Subject located within the LoginModule.
  4. If the LoginContext's overall authentication failed (the relevant REQUIRED, REQUISITE, SUFFICIENT and OPTIONAL LoginModules did not succeed), then the abort method for each LoginModule gets invoked. In this case, the LoginModule removes/destroys any authentication state originally saved.
Login module execution order

Very simply put, all the login modules that participate in JAAS authentication are configured in a list and can have flags indicating how to treat their behaviors on the login() calls.

JAAS defines the following module flags:
(The following section is copied and adapted from the javadoc of

  • Required: The LoginModule is required to succeed. If it succeeds or fails, authentication still continues to proceed down the LoginModule list.
  • Requisite: The LoginModule is required to succeed. If it succeeds, authentication continues down the LoginModule list. If it fails, control immediately returns to the application (authentication does not proceed down the LoginModule list).
  • Sufficient: The LoginModule is not required to succeed. If it does succeed, control immediately returns to the application (authentication does not proceed down the LoginModule list). If it fails, authentication continues down the LoginModule list.
  • Optional: The LoginModule is not required to succeed. If it succeeds or fails, authentication still continues to proceed down the LoginModule list.

The overall authentication succeeds only if all Required and Requisite LoginModules succeed. If a Sufficient LoginModule is configured and succeeds, then only the Required and Requisite LoginModules prior to that Sufficient LoginModule need to have succeeded for the overall authentication to succeed. If no Required or Requisite LoginModules are configured for an application, then at least one Sufficient or Optional LoginModule must succeed.


Within the scope of JCR Repository.login is used to authenticate a given user. This method either takes a Credentials argument if the validation is performed by the repository itself or null in case the user has be pre-authenticated by an external system.

Furthermore JCR defines two types of Credentials implementations:

The following variants exist for the repository login itself:

  • Repository.login(): equivalent to passing null credentials and the default workspace name.
  • Repository.login(Credentials credentials): login with credentials to the default workspace.
  • Repository.login(String workspace): login with null credentials to the workspace with the specified name.
  • Repository.login(Credentials credentials, String workspaceName)
  • JackrabbitRepository.login(Credentials credentials, String workspaceName, Map<String, Object> attributes): in addition allows to pass implementation specific session attributes.

See javax.jcr.Repository and org.apache.jackrabbit.api.JackrabbitRepository for further details.

In addition JCR defines Session.impersonate(Credentials) to impersonate another user or - as of JSR 333 - clone an existing session.


The Oak API contains the following authentication related methods and interfaces

  • AuthInfo: Immutable object created upon successful login providing information about the authenticated Subject.
  • ContentRepository.login(Credentials, String): The Oak counterpart of the JCR login.
  • ContentSession.getAuthInfo(): exposes the AuthInfo associated with the ContentSession.

API Extension

Oak Authentication

In the the package Oak 1.0 defines some extensions points that allow for further customization of the authentication.

  • LoginContextProvider: Configurable provider of the LoginContext (see below)
  • LoginContext: Interface version of the JAAS LoginContext aimed to ease integration with non-JAAS components
  • Authentication: Aimed to validate credentials during the first phase of the (JAAS) login process.

In addition this package contains various utilities and base implementations. Most notably an abstract login module implementation (AbstractLoginModule) as described below and a default implementation of the AuthInfo interface (AuthInfoImpl).

Abstract Login Module

This package also contains a abstract LoginModule implementation (AbstractLoginModule) providing common functionality. In particular it contains Oak specific methods that allow subclasses to retrieve the SecurityProvider, a Root and accesss to various security related interfaces (e.g. PrincipalManager).

Subclasses are required to implement the following methods:

  • getSupportedCredentials(): return a set of supported credential classes. See also section Supported Credentials
  • login(): The login method defined by LoginModule
  • commit(): The commit method defined by LoginModule
Example: Extending AbstractLoginModule
public class TestLoginModule extends AbstractLoginModule {

    private Credentials credentials;
    private String userId;
    private Set<? extends Principal> principals;

    protected Set<Class> getSupportedCredentials() {
        return ImmutableSet.of(TestCredentials.class);

    public boolean login() throws LoginException {
        credentials = getCredentials();
        if (validCredentials(credentials)) {
            this.credentials = credentials;
            this.userId = getUserId(credentials);
            this.principals = getPrincipals(userId);
            return true;
        return false;

    public boolean commit() throws LoginException {
        if (credentials != null) {
            if (!subject.isReadOnly()) {
                if (principals != null) {
                AuthInfo authInfo = new AuthInfoImpl(userId, Collections.EMPTY_MAP, principals);
                setAuthInfo(authInfo, subject);
            return true;
        return false;

Supported Credentials

Since Oak 1.5.1 the extensions additionally contain a dedicated interface that eases the support for different Credentials in the package space

  • CredentialsSupport: Interface definition exposing the set of supported Credentials classes and some common utility methods.
  • SimpleCredentialsSupport: Default implementation for the widely used SimpleCredentials

Oak Authentication Implementation

A description of the various requirements covered by Oak by default as well as the characteristics of the corresponding implementations can be found in section Authentication: Implementation Details.

See section differences for comprehensive list of differences wrt authentication between Jackrabbit 2.x and Oak.


The configuration of the authentication setup is defined by the AuthenticationConfiguration. This interface provides the following method:

  • getLoginContextProvider(): provides the login contexts for the desired authentication mechanism.

JAAS Configuration Utilities

There also exists a utility class that allows to obtain different for the most common setup [11]:

  • ConfigurationUtil#getDefaultConfiguration: default OAK configuration supporting uid/pw login configures LoginModuleImpl only
  • ConfigurationUtil#getJackrabbit2Configuration: backwards compatible configuration that provides the functionality covered by jackrabbit-core DefaultLoginModule, namely:
    • GuestLoginModule: null login falls back to anonymous
    • TokenLoginModule: covers token based authentication
    • LoginModuleImpl: covering regular uid/pw login


The default security setup as present with Oak 1.0 is able to provide custom implementation on various levels:

  1. The complete authentication setup can be changed by plugging a different AuthenticationConfiguration implementations. In OSGi-base setup this is achieved by making the configuration a service. In a non-OSGi-base setup the custom configuration must be exposed by the SecurityProvider implementation.
  2. Within the default authentication setup you replace or extend the set of login modules and their individual settings. In an OSGi-base setup is achieved by making the modules accessible to the framework and setting their execution order accordingly. In a non-OSGi setup this is specified in the JAAS config.
Custom LoginModule in non-OSGi setup

AppConfigurationEntry[] entries = new AppConfigurationEntry[]{new DefaultEntry(options)};
Configuration c = new Configuration() {
     public AppConfigurationEntry[] getAppConfigurationEntry(String applicationName) {
         Map<String, ?> options = [....];
         // choose control flag for custom login module (example here: REQUIRED)
         AppConfigurationEntry.LoginModuleControlFlag flag = LoginModuleControlFlag.SUFFICIENT;
         // create an entry for your custom login module
         AppConfigurationEntry customEntry = new AppConfigurationEntry("", flag, options)
         // additionally use the oak default login module
         AppConfigurationEntry defaultEntry = new AppConfigurationEntry(("", LoginModuleControlFlag.REQUIRED, options)
         // define array of all entries in the correct order according to your needs
         return new AppConfigurationEntry[]{customEntry, defaultEntry};

Further Reading